Fall/Winter 1996 Issue
American Montessori Consulting
P.O. Box 5062
Rossmoor, CA 90720
Heidi Anne Spietz, Editor
Click below to visit our AMC Montessori Bookstore --
American Montessori Consulting now has its own web site! The URL is http://www.amonco.org. You'll find an ample amount of free resource material. We also will strive to find the newest sites we think parents and teachers will enjoy, and place these links on our New Resources Page. As always, this issue, contains recommended web sites, resources for parents and teachers. Plus, in this issue, we have included a comparison of the Montessori method and Bloom's Taxonomy.
Some Comparions in Methodology and Resources Reviews by Heidi Spietz
Some years ago when I taught medical terminology and health I referred to different educational models for assistance. I was always intrigued with Bloom's taxonomy, and I referred to it when I wanted to insure that my classes would meet all of the educational objectives needed for each student to properly learn and apply the material presented. Later, when I became interested in Montessori education and was involved with early and elementary education, I was amazed to see similarities between Maria Montessori's Three Period Lesson and the educational model developed by Benjamin Bloom, et.al in 1956. Bloom's Taxonomy (Benjamin Bloom (ed)., Txonomy of EdAlthough you can find out more about Bloom's taxonomy by using Magellan at our site, or other web search engine, here is a summary of the taxonomy for reference.
Knowledge -Recall, remembering facts, dates, concepts, etc.
Comprehension - Understanding the meaning of the material learned
Application - Ability to use the information to make inferences, solve problems
Analysis - Ability to make comparisons, diagram, illustrate
Synthesis - Explain, Organize, Categorize
Evaluation - Discriminate, Evaluate, Interpret, Summarize
The Three Period Lesson consists of presenting a new concept to a child, requesting that the child show you that he fully understands what has been presented, and ultimately, determining if the child can accurately identify and pronoune the name of the new concept that has been presented to him. Using the Three Period Lesson, parents can help their children recognize geometrical shapes, learn to identify colors, languages, and so forth. The Three Period Lesson consists of three objectives, whereas Bloom's taxonomy consists of three distinctive domains. You can see, however, by studying the health lesson outline below, how the Three Period Lesson and Bloom's taxonomy actually complement each other. The first two elements of the cognitive domain, knowledge and comprehension consist of presentations which help the student to learn a concept. The second two elements of the cognitive domain, involve application and analysis of the concept learned. The synthesis and evaluation allows the student to demonstrate that he can apply the learned concept to his life. He demonstrates that he can make value judgments using the new information he has assimilated. I created the following health lesson presentation with the Montessori Three Period Lesson, in mind; however, I think you'll agree that it is compatible with Bloom's Taxonomy as well. Many of the health lessons in Modern Montessori at Home: A Creative Teaching Guide for Parents of Children 6 through 9 Years of Age and Modern Montessori at Home II: A Creative Teaching Guide for Parents of Children 10 through 12 Years of Age were written using the Maria Montessori method; however, I think you'll agree that the lessons are compatible with Bloom's taxonomy as well.
Knowledge/Understanding (Cognitive Domain) - Bloom's
First Period of the Three Period Lesson - (Presenting) Montessori's
1. Differentiate between proteins and carbohydrates.
2. Differentiate between complex and simple carbohydrates
3. Distinguish between foods which contain complete protein from those with incomplete protein.
4. Distinguish between deficiency diseases caused by lack of:
5. Identify signs and symptoms of deficiency diseases
b. vegetarian diets in which incomplete protein foods aren't combined properly
6. List foods which are good sources of complex carbohydrate and complete protein
7. List foods which may be combined to achieve complete protein for the vegetarian.
Application and Analysis (Cognitive Domain)- Bloom's
Second Period of the Three Period Lesson (Show You) - Montessori's
1. Develop the skills of locating information with particular emphasis upon:
a. Causes of protein and carbohydrate deficiency diseases
b. The effects of the deficiency diseases on man
c. Symptoms of deficiency diseases
2. Develop judgmental skills with particular emphasis on:
a. the ability to evaluate signs of deficiency diseases
3. Exercise the habit of taking every possible precaution in avoiding deficiency diseases.
Synthesis/Evaluation (Cognitive Domain) - Bloom's
Third Period (Identify/Pronounce) - Montessori's
1. Student realizes that lack of sufficient protein and carbohydrates interferes with good health.
2. Student understands the relationship in which protein and carbohydrates play in promoting good health.
3. Student develops an appreciation of the role he plays in combating deficiency diseases by including appropriate food selections in his diet.
You can see, by analyzing the outline above, how the Three Period Lesson relates to Bloom's Taxonomy. In a Montessori setting, classified reading cards, matching picture exercises, etc. are used to help the child identify and compare. This is consistent with Bloom's Cognitive Level Category involving Knowledge/Comprehension in which the student also engages in activities which help him to properly differentiate and distinguish. The first two sections of Bloom's Taxonomy are Knowledge and Comprehension.
In the outline above, the middle elementary student, is asked to recall information. The difference between the two methods, in my opinion, is that the Montessori method engages the child in the activity, through extensive hands on practice. The child often works solitarily, with only the presenter nearby for guidance if need be. The child is allowed to progress at a rate which is comfortable to him.
The third section of the Cognitive Domain in many ways, again in my opinion, is consistent with the Montessori method. The health presentation outline above, designed for the middle elementary student, encourages problem solving techniques. The hands on aspect of this domain is indeed appealing to the child. He solidifies his knowledge that amino acids, combined properly, make complete protein. By constructing a menu which shows how to properly combine protein rich foods, the child demonstrates that he is aware of how the amino acids contained in protein rich foods are combined to form complete proteins. He further sees, that some foods are high in some amino acids while lacking in other essential amino acids. He realizes that he must find foods which contain these other essential amino acids in order for the diet to contain the required complete protein intake. Thus, he uses problem solving techniques to discern which foods may be combined.
You, as a parent or teacher, can readily see how the hands on activities help the student make value judgments which will affect his life. The third section of the cognitive domain concentrates on this feeling/value aspect. Once again, in my opinion, this domain is consistent with Maria Montessori's philosophy. In the above example, by engaging in the hands on exercises, and problem solving activities, the student sees the relationship of adequate carbohydrate and protein intake to maintaining good health.
In additional lesson health presentations, other nutrients like fats, vitamins, etc. would be introduced in a similar manner. An indepth discussion and health lesson plans are included in Modern Montessori at Home II: A Creative Teaching Guide for Parents of Children 10 through 12 Years of Age.
Like the Montessori method, Bloom's taxonomy allows the teacher to employ creative lesson planning. The topic of creative teaching is covered extensively in both Modern Montessori at Home: A Creative Teaching Guide for Parents of Children Six through NineYears of Age andModern Montessori at Home II: A Creative Teaching Guide for Parents of Children 10 through 12 Years of Age.
When preparing lessons using the Cognitive Level of Bloom's Taxonomy, the teacher uses Bloom's Six Categories: Knowledge, Comprehension, Application, Analysis, Synthesis and Evaluation.
I recently became aware of the existence of a superb source of educational products for teachers and homeschoolers called Engine-Uity, Ltd. In March, 1996 I attended the NCME conference in Newport Beach, California. I was really impressed with Nancy Sager's workshop at the conference in which she showed how the message of cultural lessons is enriched through literature. It was a brilliant lecture.
Ms. Sager was kind enough to make sure that each of the participants in the workshop received the Engine-Uity, Ltd. catalog. Wow! I was so enthused when I saw the mini-center kits offered by this company. I was particularly impressed with the mini-center kits available for middle school students. Some of the topics include ocean mammals, ocean fish, mollusks, sea birds, tide pools, coral reefs, oceanography, ecology, historical ships and modern ships. The ecology and coral reefs mini centers contain activities which greatly complement the oceanography lesson presentations found in Modern Montessori at Home II: A Creative Teaching Guide for Parents of Children 10 through 12 Years of Age.
I agree with the description found in Engine-Uity, Ltd's advertising literature. Each mini-center is designed for students to use independently as well as for students to use in a small group setting. Each mini-center kit is also keyed to Bloom's Taxonomy.
Everything from environmental geometry lesson plans to presenting lessons about Shakespeare is available from this company. You'll want to request the Engine-Uity, Ltd. colorful catalog for a complete description of kits and other learning materials appropriate for elementary and secondary students. Call (800)877-8718, (602)997-7144, FAX (602)997-0974 or write to Engine-Uity, Ltd., P.O. Box 9610, Phoenix AZ 85068-9610.
The Midwest Book Review Site
Another web site, we recently discovered is the Midwest Book Review Site Parents, teachers, and librarians will want to visit this site to obtain reviews on new as well as forthcoming titles for children. The reviewers give more than just a synopsis of each book reviewed. Each review is filled with invaluable information to help you decide if the book will met your child's needs. The Midwest Book Review site is very comprehensive. Adults will be impressed with the amount of indepth information about upcoming titles on a wide range of topics of interest to parents and teachers as well.
CELLS alive! is an invaluable resource for educators searching for indepth lesson planning information about cells and their interaction with the environment. Middle and high school students interested in doing independent research on cellular biology will appreciate being able to actually visualize the cell to see how environmental factors can positively or negatively affect it. James A. Sullivan's web site will have wide audience appeal. Both the beginning biology student and advanced biology student can work independently to gain additional scientific knowledge. The video clips and 3D animation accompanying the scientific topic being described help the student to more thoroughly understand concepts like the production of antibodies, white blood cells interaction with microbes, etc.
The University of Michigan's Digital Learning Center for Microbial Ecology is another site for those planning detailed lessons on microbiology. This well designed site allows the user to select from a microbial menu ranging from The Microbe Zoo to Microbial Ecology Resources. The latter providing a wealth of information on microbiology related software, periodicals, books, museums, events, videos and catalogs, while the former, The Microbe Zoo, allows students to see how microbes impact our selected environments. Topics range from the snack bar to water world.
I clicked on water world and was delighted to find a map with detailed descriptions of microbes in pond, watery desert and other environments. I again clicked on *pond* and received a detailed selection of microbes to select from, i.e. photosynthesizers like algae and sulfate reducers. The material in this section, in particular, would definitely augment biology and environmental presentations mentioned in Modern Montessori at Home II: A Creative Teaching Guide for Parents of Children 10 through 12 Years of Age.
Lyrical Learning Lyrical Learning, by Carol Bleakley Creations is an audio cassette of singable and educational songs. Carol Bleakley, a teacher who uses the Montessori method, designed the program to support learning of specific Montessori lessons. The song selection, designed for students between the ages of 3 and 8, includes *The Classes of Vertebrates*, *One Little World*, *Mathematics*, *When the Time is O'Clock* and *Our Language*. *When the Time is O'Clock* assists the child in learning the concept of o'clock, half past, quarter past and quarter to. *Our Language* helps the child distinguish each of the parts of speech, i.e. noun, article, adjective, pronoun, conjunction, preposition, verb, adverb and interjection. For additional information write to Carol Bleakley's Creations, 10550 Canyon Lake Drive, San Diego, CA 92131.
We often receive requests from parents and teachers searching for new Canadian Montessori Resources. We learned about the Lakeview Montessori School at the recent NCME Montessori convention held in Newport Beach this past spring. The company's attractive, well organized catalog makes ordering a breeze. Pictures throughout the catalog greatly compliment the discussion of how the Montessori materials are used.
The *Joy of Objects* section focuses on the following: picture/object matching, letter/sound matching, sorting, object boxes, sentences and objects and grammar study. If you have read our *Montessori at Home* book (either 1988 or 1991 edition), you'll be very familiar with many of the lessons which accompany the apparatus described in Lakeview's catalog. If you are a parent who doesn't wish to follow the instructions in *Montessori at Home* on how to make some of the apparatus, you'll be thrilled with the prospect of purchasing quality, affordable materials. Montessori private and public schools will also appreciate the company's marvelous offerings.
Besides the *Joy of Objects*, the company offers sorting sheet and object sets which may be used to help children categorize objects and recognize beginning sounds. Here is a sampling: tools sorting sheet with 18 objects, farm animals sorting sheet with 18 objects, wild animals sorting sheet with 18 objects, forest animals sorting sheet with 18 objects, sea animals sorting sheet with 18 objects, and beginning sound chart A-Z sheet with 52 objects. The sorting sets are also available in French!! For a complete ordering information or inquiries contact the company via mail at Lakeview Montessori School, 13808 Riverside Dr. E., St. Clair Beach, Ontario, Canada N8N 1B5, or by phone at (619)735-5005/FAX (519)735-7462.
Montessori Aids Canada Ltd. offers an impressive selection of beautifully crafted Montessori materials. The company uses only selected and seasoned Sri Lankan timber to create its products. Montessori Aids' locations include USA, Canada, Europe, the Far East and Australia. The color catalog features the Montessori sensorial material, mathematical apparatus, biological apparatus, language material, and geographical materials.
We were particularly impressed with the language materials. The individual letters of the alphabet are repeatedly used for so many of the Montessori language exercises by the children. Schools looking to purchase durable materials will be particularly impressed with the company's movable alphabet sets as well as their other fine offerings. Contact Montessori Aids Canada Ltd, by writing to Suite 614, 20 Wade Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, Canada MGH 4H3. Telephone (416)538-6542 FAX (416)538-3785.
Kaybee Montessori, well known supplier of Montessori materials from Italy and India, is now online. If you would like detailed information about their products call 1-800-732-9304, via e-mail at KB Gonzaga@aol.com, or via snail mail at 615-A Lofstrand Lane, Rockville, MD 20850.
MAP MAKING SIMPLIFIED
University College London, at the Royal College of Art and at the University of Nottingham offered its participants the chance to learn how to make effective maps. Parents and teachers looking for lesson planning ideas to present to older students in the area of physical geography will want to visit Making Maps Easy to Read to see how these students successfully compiled data to make maps easy to read.
C-R-E-A-T_E for Missippi Classroom Lesson Resources contains a collection of geography resources, lessons plans and links for teachers, parents and students.
UW K-12 Resource Guide is a site teachers and parents may want to consult for lesson planning. . Using Quick Search, type in a keyword like *maps*, *geography*, etc. You'll be delighted with the collection of lesson plans available. (55k).
New to Web Navigating??
MUSIC AND MOVEMENT - Kindermusik and Your Child..
Kindermusik, which provides an introduction to music for children from 18 months to seven years of age, in my opinion, is very consistent with the Maria Montessori method. Maria Montessori felt that movement was an essential component in the young child's development. Kindermusik uses the same premise to help the child develop balance and achieve coordination. This is accomplished by sequential lesson presentations which are enjoyable and stimulating for the young child.
The program uses an integrated approach, which will delight many Montessori teachers. Children are encouraged to explore the world of music through a *hands-on* approach. As the young child explores sounds vocally and instrumentally with the *manipulative materials* he gains confidence in his ability to appreciate as well as perhaps *compose* music. Like Montessori, Kindermusik allows the child to progress at his own rate.
*Kindermusik Beginnings* is designed for children 18 months through three years of age. Growing With Kindermusik is designed for children from 3 1/2 to five years. *Kindermusik for the Young Child* is designed for children four to seven years of age. *Kindermusik Adventures* is a supplement designed also for children four to seven years of age. This supplement focuses on allowing children to explore music, and its relationship to customs, cultures, etc. from around the world.
There are over 2,000 licensed Kindermusik teachers throughout the U.S., Canada as well as in 20 other countries. Teachers and parents wishing to obtain detailed information about the Kindermusik programs should contact the Kindermusik headquarters at: P.O. Box 2675, Greensboro, NC 27415, by phone at (910)273-3363, (800)628-5687 or by FAX at (910)273-4143.
If you would like to find additional resource information, you'll want to purchase or borrow from your local library our In this book, you will receive indepth reviews of highly recommended resources and products designed for preschoolers through 15 years of age, tips on how to use the resources in a Montessori setting, information on where to buy supplies for integrated lesson planning, tips on how to make some of the Montessori materials yourself, selected book lists for lesson planning and recommended computer software.
If you are interested in creating beginning reading books for your child, you'll want to purchase Gabby and Her Goslings and Looking for Missy. Parents and teachers who have read Montessori at Home: A Complete Guide to Teaching Your Preschooler at Home Using the Montessori Method can write their own story books, similar to Gabby and Her Goslings.
Looking for Missy, designed to be used with Modern Montessori at Home: A Creative Teaching Guide for Parents of Children 6 through 9 Years of Age, assists the parent or teacher as she creates books for children around six or seven years of age.
To order these books visit our Reviews and Ordering Page
As always, we appreciate yourinput. Please send e-mail or snail mail with your comments. We hope that all of you have a happy, healthy school year.
Heidi Spietz at
American Montessori Consulting
P.O. Box 5062
Rossmoor, CA 90720
Heidi Anne Spietz, Editor
THE AMC Montessori News
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